Author Guidelines

Culture, Education, and Future (CEF) which accepts research articles and review articles in English is a double-blind peer-review journal.

Authors could use either British (-ise) or American spelling for their manuscript; however, one style should be used consistently throughout the manuscript. It is mandatory to do language proofreading manuscripts before publishing. This is the author's responsibility.

Please register all the author(s) while submitting your manuscript to the Open Journal System. This is the corresponding author's responsibility. Please be informed that we do not add any authors in progress or after the decision.

The manuscript submitted to the journal should be original, reflect the integrity expected from scientific communication, and show consistency and integrity that guarantees that the article is both understandable and interesting. Please review the suggestions below before submitting the article to the journal.

Correctly prepared original articles help speed up the editorial review process; inappropriate articles are returned to the author(s). Spelling, punctuation, usage consistency in format and explanations, sentence structure, spacing, number of words in the text, and number of tables, figures, and graphics should be carefully examined before submitting the article to the journal.

Authors are required to download the templates using the links below before submitting articles to the journal and make the necessary preparations using these templates when submitting their articles to the journal.

Download Cover Letter Template

Download Title Page Template (Mandatory)

Download Manuscript Template (Mandatory)

Download Author Checklist

Download Manuscript Revision Template (Mandatory - After Review)

Your manuscript should be compiled in the following order: title page; abstract; keywords; main text introduction, methods, findings/results, discussion, conclusion, and implications*; acknowledgments; declaration of conflicting interest; funding, about the author(s), references; appendices (as appropriate); table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages); figures; figure captions (as a list).

*Authors have the freedom to change the titles of the sections or present the manuscript in a different order.

Word Limits
The CEF is more flexible in terms of the length of the manuscript. Therefore, there are no word limits for any type of article.

Style Guidelines
Please refer to these quick style guidelines when preparing your manuscript, rather than any published articles or a sample copy.

Please use American or British(-ise) spelling style consistently throughout your manuscript.

Please use single quotation marks, except where ‘a quotation is “within” a quotation’.

Please note that long quotations should be indented without quotation marks.

Formatting and Templates
Manuscripts may be submitted in Word format. Tables and Figures should be saved in the main text. To assist you in preparing your manuscript, we provide formatting template(s).

Word templates are available for this journal. Please save the template to your hard drive, ready for use.

If you are not able to use the template via the links (or if you have any other template queries) please contact us here.

Your manuscript should be compiled in the following order: title page; abstract; keywords; main text introduction, methods, findings/results, discussion, conclusion, and implications*; acknowledgments; declaration of conflicting interest; funding, about the author(s), references; appendices (as appropriate); table(s) with caption(s) (on individual pages); figures; figure captions (as a list).

Author details. All authors of a manuscript should include their full name and affiliation on the title page of the manuscript. Where available, please also include ORCiDs. One author will need to be identified as the corresponding author, with their email address normally displayed in the article PDF (depending on the journal) and the online article. Authors’ affiliations are the affiliations where the research was conducted. If any of the named co-authors moves affiliation during the peer-review process, the new affiliation can be given as a footnote. Please note that no changes to affiliation can be made after your manuscript is accepted. 

Abstract. Should contain an unstructured abstract of 250 words, including 3-5 keywords.

Funding details. Please supply all details required by your funding and grant-awarding bodies as follows:
For single agency grants
— This work was supported by the [Funding Agency] under Grant [number xxxx].
For multiple agency grants
— This work was supported by the [Funding Agency #1] under Grant [number xxxx]; [Funding Agency #2] under Grant [number xxxx]; and [Funding Agency #3] under Grant [number xxxx].
If you do not have any funding and grant-awarding, please write, “This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.” 

Disclosure statement. This is to acknowledge any financial or non-financial interest that has arisen from the direct applications of your research. If there are no relevant competing interests to declare, please state this within the article, for example: The authors report there are no competing interests to declare.

Data availability statement. If there is a data set associated with the manuscript, please provide information about where the data supporting the results or analyses presented in the manuscript can be found. Where applicable, this should include the hyperlink, DOI or other persistent identifier associated with the data set(s).

Data deposition. If you choose to share or make the data underlying the study open, please deposit your data in a recognized data repository prior to or at the time of submission. You will be asked to provide the DOI, pre-reserved DOI, or other persistent identifier for the data set.

Supplemental online material. Supplemental material can be a video, dataset, fileset, sound file or anything which supports (and is pertinent to) your manuscript. We publish supplemental material online via Figshare. Find out more about supplemental material and how to submit it with your article.

Figures. Figures should be high quality (1200 dpi for line art, 600 dpi for grayscale and 300 dpi for colour, at the correct size). Figures should be supplied in one of our preferred file formats: EPS, PS, JPEG, TIFF, or Microsoft Word (DOC or DOCX) files are acceptable for figures that have been drawn in Word.

Tables. Tables should present new information rather than duplicating what is in the text. Readers should be able to interpret the table without reference to the text. Please supply editable files.

Equations. If you are submitting your manuscript as a Word document, please ensure that equations are editable.


In-text references and bibliography should conform to the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual 7th Edition style. For more details, please see:

You can see detailed information and examples about references as follows;

Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list (and vice versa). Any references cited in the abstract must be given in full. Unpublished results and personal communications are not recommended in the reference list but may be mentioned in the text. If these references are included in the reference list, they should follow the standard reference style of the journal and should include a substitution of the publication date with either 'Unpublished results' or 'Personal communication'. Citation of a reference as 'in press' implies that the item has been accepted for publication.

In-Text citations
Single author: the author's name (without initials, unless there is ambiguity) and the year of publication;

Two to six authors: at first citation, list all authors' names with "&" separating the last two authors and the year of publication; in subsequent citations for three or more authors, use author et al. in the text;

More than six authors: at first citation list the first six authors followed by et al. and the year of publication. In subsequent citations use author et al. Citations may be made directly (or parenthetically). Groups of references should be listed first alphabetically, then chronologically.

Use the name of the author(s) followed by the year of publication when citing references within the text and page number. For example:

1 authors (Callan, 1998)

2 authors (Eggen & Kauchak, 2001)

3 or more authors (Ivanitskaya et al., 2002)

List: References should be arranged first alphabetically and then further sorted chronologically if necessary. More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters "a", "b", "c", etc., placed after the year of publication.

(Flett et. al., 2005; Hang, Espinoza, & Flett, 2010; Zhang & Espinoza, 1998)

How to Create a Reference List

Ajayi, L. (2011). How ESL teachers’ sociocultural identities mediate their teacher role identities in a diverse urban school setting. The Urban Review, 43(5), 654-680.

Aktan, S. (2021). Waking up to the dawn of a new era: Reconceptualization of curriculum post Covid-19. Prospects, 51, 1-13.

Anspal, T., Leijen, Ä., & Löfström, E. (2019). Tensions and the teacher’s role in student teacher identity development in primary and subject teacher curricula. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research63(5), 679-695.

Buchanan, J. (2011). Teacher dis/appointments? Transitions into and out of teaching. Curriculum Perspectives, 31, 12-24.

Callan, R. J. (1998). Circadian rhythm and the business person. International Journal of Value Based Management, 11, 9-17.

Crawford, J., Butler-Henderson, K., Rudolph, J., Malkawi, B., Glowatz, M., Burton, R., Magni, P. A., & Lam, S. (2020). COVID-19: 20 countries’ higher education intra-period digital pedagogy responses. Journal of Applied Learning & Teaching, 3(1), 1-20.

Ivanitskaya, L., Clark, D., Montgomery, G., & Primeau, R. (2002). Interdisciplinary learning: Process and outcomes. Innovative Higher Education, 27(2), 95-111.

Minogue, J., & Jones, G. (2009). Measuring the impact of haptic feedback using the SOLO taxonomy. International Journal of Science Education, 31(10), 1359-1378.

Weeden, K. A., & Cornwell, B. (2020). The small-world network of college classes: implications for epidemic spread on a university campus. Sociological Science7, 222-241.

Yamamoto, G. T., & Altun, D. (2020). Coronavirüs ve çevrim içi (online) eğitimin önlenemeyen yükselişi [The Coronavirus and the rising of online education]. Üniversite Araştırmaları Dergisi3(1), 25-34.

Book & Book Chapter
Biggs, J. B., & Collis, K. (1982). Evaluating the quality of learning: The SOLO taxonomy. Academic Press.

Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, the classification of educational goals, handbook I: Cognitive Domain. David McKay Company.

Bowen, J. A. (2012). Teaching naked: How moving technology out of your college classroom will improve student learning. Jossey-Bass.

Burke, P. J., & Stets, J. E. (2009). Identity theory. Oxford University Press.

Books with Multiple Editors and Chapters

Day, C., & Sachs, J. (2004). Professionalism, performativity and empowerment: Discourses in the politics, policies and purposes of continuing professional development. In C. Day & J. Sachs (Eds.), International handbook on the continuing professional development of teachers (pp. 3-32). Open University Press.

Oyserman, D., Elmore, K., & Smith, G. (2012). Self, self-concept, and identity. In Leary, M. R., & Tangney, J. P. (Eds.) Handbook of self and identity (pp. 69-104). The Guilford Press.

Rodgers, C., & Scott, K. (2008). The development of the personal self and professional identity in learning to teach. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D.J. McIntyre & K.E. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education: Enduring questions and changing contexts (pp. 732-755). Routledge.

Schwartz, S. J., Luyckx, K., & Vignoles, V. L. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of identity theory and research. Springer.

Torres-Guzmán, M., & Madrigal, R. (2011). Reflections on the life of a bilingual teacher. In I. M. Saleh & M. S. Khine (Eds.), Teaching teachers: Approaches in improving quality education (pp. 227-246). Nova Science.

Wetherell, M. (2010). The field of identity studies. In M. Wetherell & C. Mohanty (Eds.), The Sage handbook of identities (pp. 3-26). Sage Publications.

Master’s Thesis
Duyul, N. (2019). A qualitative case study for inclusive education in a primary public school with diverse students (Unpublished master’s thesis). Middle East Technical University, Ankara.

Doctoral Dissertation
Borden, D. (2013). Classroom management: Research for beginning teachers (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Evergreen State College, Washington.

Sources from Web sites
O’Neill, G., & Murphy, F. (2010). Guide to taxonomies of learning. UCD Teaching and Learning/Resources, Retrieved 01 November, 2010 from

OECD (2020). Why open science is critical to combatting COVID-19. Retrieved November 4, 2021, from

Simpson, P. & Hungerford, F. (1988). Environmental education: a process for pre-service teacher training curriculum development (UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Programme, Environmental Education Series 26). Retrieved August 25, 2011, from /0008/082271eb.pdf

Conference Proceeding
Author Surname, First Initial. Name, Second Initial. (Year). Conference paper title. In Editor First Initial. Editor Surname (Ed.), Proceedings Book Title (pp. page range of paper). Place of Publication: Publisher.

Armstrong, D. B., Fogarty, G. J., & Dingsdag, D. (2007). Scales measuring characteristics of small business information systems. In Tan, W-G (Ed.), Proceedings of Research, Relevance and Rigour: Coming of Age: 18th Australasian Conference on Information Systems (pp. 163-171). Toowoomba, Australia: University of Southern Queensland.

Taylor, J. A. (2006). Assessment: a tool for development and engagement in the first year of university study. Paper presented at the Engaging Students: 9th Pacific Rim in Higher Education (FYHE) Conference, Griffith, AustraliaRetrieved December 9, 2023, from 

Evaluation Process

For the articles that are sent to the reviewer evaluation after the editorial review and are not declared rejected by the reviewers and/or editors, the authors are required to specify their edits/responses to the relevant reviewers' comments/suggestions/criticisms using the template below and upload the document to the system.

Download Manuscript Revision Form